The CombineThe 'combine' was formed in November 1912 by the merger of several production, distribution and exhibition companies into Australasian Films/Union Theatres. Australasian Films was primarily a distribution company, while Union Theatres managed cinemas. In 1931, Greater Union Theatres later took control, losing Australasian Films, and establishing Cinesound as a production subsidiary. GUO's greatest competitor during the 1920s and 1930s was Hoyts: they were forced into a merger as the General Film Corporation. In 1958 another merger created Amalgamated Holdings Ltd. And so on.
... Amalgamated Pictures, a new company formed in March 1911 by the producer/exhibitor combination of Johnson and Gibson, and J and N Tait. The company produced numerous newsreels and features during 1911 and early 1912, before withdrawing from feature production and merging with its main competitors in the combine of Australasian Films in November 1912. Pike & Cooper: 14.
The effect of the combine was monopolistic. Small independent production companies could not get venues to release their work, with the result that some went to the wall.
Bertrand, Ina & William Routt 1989, 'The big bad combine: some aspects of national aspirations and international constraints in the Australian cinema, 1896-1929', in Albert Moran & Tom O'Regan eds, The Australian Screen, Penguin, Ringwood: 23-7.
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