Australian Cinema > types > music/dance

Music (and dance)

Inclusive list of Australasian films which are musicals and/or in which music is featured and/or in which a major character or actor is a musician. Also dance films.

ABBA: The Movie (Lasse Hallstrom, 1978) documentary

Adventures of Priscilla: Queen of the Desert, The (Stephan Elliott, 1994) Terence Stamp, Hugo Weaving, Guy Pearce; 98 min.

All Men Are Liars (Gerard Lee, 1994) comedy about a boy (David Price) who dresses as a girl to join an all-girl band; Toni Pearen, David Price, John Jarratt, Jamie Petersen, Carmen Tanti

Amy (Nadia Tass, 1998) prod. Nadia Tass, David Parker; wr. David Parker; dp David Parker; Rachel Griffiths, Alana de Roma, Ben Mendelsohn, Nick Barker, Kerry Armstrong, Jeremy Trigatti, William Zappa, Sullivan Stapleton, Torquil Neilson, Mary Ward, Susie Porter; little girl won't speak after the sudden death of her father - but she will communicate in song; young girl ceases to speak as a result of family trauma: her father, a rock musician, dies on stage as she watches

Betty Blokk-buster Follies (Peter Batey, 1976) aka Betty Blockbuster Follies; prod. Eric Dare; a Reg Livermore production, Musical Director: Mike Wade; 120 min. colour; Reg Livermore, the Baxter Funt band, the Reginas

Bigger than Tina (Neil Foley, 1999) wr. Neil Foley, production company: Backyard, producers RMIT media arts graduates Neil Foley, Grant Hardie, Ben Milward-Bason, distributor: Palace. 'This mockumentary is about Dan Vardy-Cobb (Michael Dalley), a daggy singer-songwriter who aims to be bigger than his idol, Tina Arena. Director and writer Neil Foley was inspired to create the gormless performer by a fellow he saw at a football club lunch. Foley added authenticity to the film by rigorously promoting the star, having Dalley make plenty of in-character appearances at music industry shindigs. Rated M. Luna Leederville.' Sue Yeap, West Australian Thursday 30 March 2000: 19.

Billy's Holiday (Richard Wherrett, 1994) Max Cullen, Kris McQuade, Tina Bursill, Genevieve Lemon, Drew Forsythe, Richard Roxburgh, Rachael Coopes; Max sounds just like Billie Holiday

Bootmen (Dein Perry, 2000) aka Tap Dogs; wr. Steve Worland, prod. Hilary Linstead; Adam Garcia, Sophie Lee, Sam Worthington, Susie Porter, Anthony Hayes

Boy Castaways, The (Michael Kantor, 2013) wr. Raimondo Cortese, Michael Kantor; Paul Blackwell, Mark Leonard Winter, Marco Chiappi; musical

Bran Nue Dae (Rachel Perkins, 2009) wr. Reg Cribb; Phillip Rocky McKenzie, Geoffrey Rush, Ernie Dingo, Deborah Mailman, Ningali Lawford, Missy Higgins, Tom Budge; musical; Australian release 14 January 2010

Broken Melody, The (Ken G. Hall, 1938) prod. Ken G. Hall, Cinesound Features; wr. Frank Harvey from the novel by F J Thwaites; dp George Heath, ed. William Shepherd, 89 mins; Lloyd Hughes (John Ainsworth), Diana Du Cane (Ann Brady), Gough Whitlam (man in nightclub).

Castanet Club, The (Neil Armfield, 1990) musical

Celeste (Ben Hackworth, 2018) Radha Mitchell, Thomas Cocquerel, Nadine Garner, Odessa Young, Emm Wiseman; music drama

Come Up Smiling (William Freshman, 1939) aka Ants In His Pants, prod. Ken G. Hall, Cinesound Features, wr. William Freshman, story John Addison Chandler [Ken G. Hall], dp George Heath, ed. William Shepherd, art director Eric Thompson, sfx J. Alan Kenyon, musical director Henry Krips, songs 'That's the Way to Handle Your Man', lyrics by Bob Geraghty, Ronald Whelan, 'Poor Little Sheep', lyrics by Will Mahoney, Ronald Whelan, music by Bob Geraghty, Henry Krips, 'Come Up Smiling', lyrics by Harry Allen, music by Henry Krips, prod. mgr Jack Souter, Harry Strachan, ass. dir. Ronald Whelan, sound Clive Cross; Will Mahoney (Barney O'Hara), Shirley Ann Richards (Eve Cameron), Jean Hatton (Pat), Evie Hayes (Kitty Katkin), Sidney Wheeler (Worthington Howard), Alec Kellaway ('The Killer'), Guy Hastings (Colonel Cameron), John Fleeting (John Wynyard), Ronald Whelan (Max), Harry Abdy (Sharkey), Lou Vernon (Signor Rudolpho), Harold Meade (Sir James Hall), Charles Zoli (Rudolpho's valet), Bob Geraghty (pressman), Jack Dunleavy (referee), George Lloyd and Chips Rafferty (men in the crowd); 77 min.

Cosi (Mark Joffe, 1996) wr. Louis Nowra (also play); prod. Richard Brennan, Timothy White; Barry Otto (Roy), Ben Mendelsohn (Lewis), Toni Collette (Julie), Pamela Rabe (Ruth), Jacki Weaver (Cherry), Paul Chubb (Henry), Colin Hay (Zac), David Wenham (Doug), Colin Friels (Errol), Aden Young (Nick), Rachel Griffiths (Lucy), Kerry Fletcher (OT person), Tony Llewellyn-Jones, Robin Ramsay (the Minister); set in asylum; based to some extent on Louis Nowra's own experience, but he produced Trial by Jury

Dance me to my Song (Rolf de Heer, 1998) wr. Heather Rose; Heather Rose, John Brumpton; nothing to do with music, though having "dance" and "song" in the title

Diaries of Vaslav Nijinsky, The (Paul Cox, 2002) presumably a "dance movie"; a sort of dramatised doco of Nijinsky thro a reading of his letters; art film

Dingo (Rolf de Heer, 1992) Colin Friels (as a trumpeter), Miles Davis, Bernadette Lafont, Helen Buday; review by Raymond Younis in Scott Murray ed. 1995, Australian Film 1978-1994: A Survey of Theatrical Features, OUP, Melbourne: 337

Dirt Music (Phillip Noyce, pre-production 2004) film rights of Tim Winton's novel bought by Phillip Noyce in 2002; film to be shot in WA set in fictional seaside town of White Point; Layla Tucak, "Noyce to put Music on film", The Australian, 11 May 2002: 3

Dogs in Space (Richard Lowenstein, 1987) Michael Hutchence, Saskia Post, Nique Needles; 106 min.; lead singer of INXS is the star; Dogs in Space is the name of fictional band

Doing Time For Patsy Cline (Chris Kennedy, 1997) prod. Chris Kennedy, John Winter, wr. Chris Kennedy, dp Andrew Lesnie (AFI award); Miranda Otto, Richard Roxburgh, Matt Day, Tony Barry, Roy Billing, Annie Byron, Gus Mercurio, Kiri Paramore, Wayne Goodwin; 96 min.

Don Quixote (Rudolf Nureyev & Robert Helpmann, 1973) Production Company: International Arts/Australian International Finance Corporation/The Australian Ballet Foundation. Producer: John Hargreaves. Associate Producer: Pat Condon. Screenplay, Scenario, Script, Choreography: Rudolf Nureyev. Based on the ballet by Marius Petipa. Photography: Geoffrey Unsworth. Editor: Anthony Buckley. Art Director: Bill Hutchinson. Production Design, Costumes: Barry Kay. Music: Ludwig Minkus. Musical Director: John Lanchbery. Production Manager: Hal McElroy. Assistant Director: Bryan Ashbridge, Wallace Potts. Sound Recording: Ken Hammond. Sound Editor: Bob Hathaway. 111 mins. Colour. Cast: Robert Helpmann (Don Quixote), Ray Powell (Sancho Panza), Rudolf Nureyev (Basilio), and dancers of the Australian Ballet. Nureyev's adaptation of the nineteenth-century Russian ballet by Petipa had been added to the repertoire of the Australian Ballet in 1970. This film version, conceived as an extension of the Ballet's international career, was produced by a private syndicate, which included Sir Robert Helpmann. Finance was raised largely in the USA. Most of the production crew were Australian but their work was supportive to the British director of photography and art director. (Pike & Cooper)

EMO: The Musical (Neil Triffett, 2016) wr. Neil Triffett; Benson Jack Anthony, Jordan Hare, Rahart Adams; musical

Facing the Music (Bob Connolly & Robyn Anderson, 2001) documentary

Garage Days (Alex Proyas, 2002) wr. Alex Proyas, Dave Warner, Michael Udesky; Kick Gurry, Pia Miranda, Maya Stange, Chris Sadrinna, Russell Dykstra, Marton Csokas, Andy Anderson, Tiriel Mora, Yvette Duncan; Priscella Engall, 'Alex Proyas lifts the shades', Metro, 135: 50-54

Giselle (Toa Fraser, 2013) wr. Toa Fraser; Gillian Murphy; NZ

Goddess (Mark Lamprell, 2013) Laura Michelle Kelly, Ronan Keating; musical comedy; for release 14 March 2013

I Want To Dance Better At Parties (Gideon Obarzarnek, Matthew Bate, 2013) 'hybrid' film; dance; Adelaide FF 2013

Lost Chord, The (W. J. Lincoln, 1911)

Love Serenade (Shirley Barrett, 1996) wr. Shirley Barrett, dp Mandy Walker; Miranda Otto, Rebecca Frith, George Shevtsov, John Alansu (Albert Lee); 101 min.; two sisters compete for the attentions of DJ new to small town; the younger works in the Chinese restaurant; DJ uses music of mainly James Brown to make "philosophical" statements

Moulin Rouge (Baz Luhrmann, 2001) ed. Jill Bilcock; Ewan McGregor, Nicole Kidman, David Wenham, John Leguizamo; 122 min.

Muriel's Wedding (P. J. Hogan, 1994) Toni Collette, Bill Hunter, Rachel Griffiths, Sophie Lee; 100 min.; main characters mime to ABBA; cf. Priscilla, in which similarly gay icon music is integral to the mise-en-scene

Night Club (A. R. Harwood, 1952) Production Company: Cambridge Films. Producer: David Bilcock. Screenplay, Scenario, Script: A R Harwood. Photography: Len Heitman. Editor: Barbara Baxter. Art Director: Bill Slatter. Song: 'Just for a Time', composed by Geoff Kitchen. Ballet: Olive Wallace. Production Manager: Rudy Unger, Neil Duncan. 55 mins. Cast: Joey Porter (Nick Arnold), Joff Ellen (Joss), Joan Bilceaux (Nita Fleming), Colin Crane (James Winters), Frank Holbrook (Bill Winters), Marjorie Harwood (Joan McDonald), Alex Roy (Jack Hanson) Ray Jones (compere), Reg Glenny (detective), Johnny Goodwin (cleaner), Barney March, Lloyd Nairn, the Clarence Sisters, the Leonard Boys, the Spencer Trio, the Geoff Kitchen Quintette. Bill Winters goes to a country town to work quietly on the script for a musical show. There he sees some local variety acts and persuades his wealthy father to present them in a city night club. The show is a success, despite an attempt by a jealous singer to cause disruptions. Night Club was Harwood's last attempt to re-enter feature production. In retrospect it seems to have been ill-fated from the start. For his subject he chose to remake Show Business (or at least one of its twin plots), even though he had failed commercially with the story the first time. Minimal finance of about £7000 was provided entirely by a Melbourne documentary firm, Cambridge Films. Shooting began in July 1952, with Harwood's daughter as the leading ingenue, Harwood himself (under his given names of Alex Roy) as a Puckish private detective, and a number of amateur and semi-professional variety artists. For the sake of economy, sound (including the musical items) was recorded 'wild' on a simple wire recorder, and it proved impossible to achieve perfect synchronisation in editing. After private previews at the end of 1952 the film virtually disappeared, although small distributors such as Ray Films occasionally arranged one-night stands in suburban and country theatres over the next few years.

One Night the Moon (Rachel Perkins, 2001) wr. Rachel Perkins; tragic music-drama adapted from true story about a blacktracker called in to find a missing girl, starring Perth's own Kelton Pell; Paul Kelly, Kaarin Fairfax and their daughter Memphis Kelly are cast as the screen family; music by Mairead Hannan, Paul Kelly, Kev Carmody (premiere, Sydney Opera House June 2001 - released shortly afterwards)

One Perfect Day (Paul Currie, 2003) wr. Chip Richards, dp Gary Ravenscroft; Dan Spielman, Leeanna Walsman, Andrew Howard, Nathan Phillips, Abbie Cornish, Rory Williamson, Kerry Armstrong; drama; Tommy Matisse hears music in everything, from the rhythm of the traffic to the beating heart of his girlfriend Alysse - for him it is all "life's secret symphony"; set in Melbourne's Dance party world, this is a modern day fable for young people that explores the power of love, hope and music in a dark and intense world; v. Peter Mattessi, "Highs and lows: underneath the surface of One Perfect Day", Metro, 140, 2004: 36-40; brief review of DVD release: Matthew Goodwin, Empire, 43, October 2004: 103: "hypnotically awful"

Oz: A Rock and Roll Road Movie (Chris Lofven, 1976) Production Company: Count Features. Producer: Chris Lofven, Lyne Helms. Associate Producer: Jane Scott. Screenplay, Scenario, Script: Chris Lofven. Photography: Dan Burstall. Additional Photography: Vince Monton. Editor: Les Luxford. Art Director: Robbie Perkins. Optical Effects: Larry Wyner. Music: Ross Wilson. Songs: 'Living in the land of Oz', 'Greaseball', 'The mood', 'Who's gonna love you tonight', writen and sung by Ross Wilson; 'You're driving me insane', written by Baden Hutchins, sung by Graham Matters; 'Our warm tender love', written by Gary Young, sung by Joy Dunstan; 'Beatin' around the bush', and 'Glad I'm living here', written by Wayne Burt, sung by Jo Jo Zep and the Falcons. Production Manager: Lyne Helms. Assistant Director: Walter Boston. Sound Re-recording: Peter Fenton. Stunts: Graham Matherick. 103 mins. Colour. Cast: Joy Dunstan (Dorothy), Graham Matters (Wally/the Wizard/record salesman/tram conductor/doorman/face at party), Bruce Spence (bass player/surfie), Michael Carman (drummer/mechanic), Gary Waddell (guitarist/bikie), Robin Ramsay (Good Fairy), Paula Maxwell (Jane), Ned Kelly (bouncer/truckie), Lorraine West (waitress), Beris Underhill (receptionist). "Oz is a 'rock'n'roll road movie' with the narrative structure of The Wizard of Oz (1939). Dorothy is now a groupie in search of the king of rock performers, the Wizard; the Straw Man is a vague and gentle surfie, the Tin Man a country car mechanic, and the Lion a timid and self-pitying bikie dressed in fearsome black leather." (Pike & Cooper)

Piano, The (Jane Campion, 1983) prod. Jan Chapman; Holly Hunter, Anna Paquin, Sam Neill, Harvey Keitel, Kerry Walker, Genevieve Lemon, Tungia Baker

Pirate Movie, The (Ken Annakin, 1982) loosely based on Pirates of Penzance

Razzle Dazzle (Darren Ashton, 2007) Kerry Armstrong

Rocky Horror Picture Show, The (Jim Sharman, 1975) not Australian; not in Pike & Cooper; made in England for 20th Century Fox

Shine (Scott Hicks, 1996) wr. Jan Sardi; Geoffrey Rush (AA), Noah Taylor, John Gielgud, Googie Withers, Lynn Redgrave; Academy Award; 130 min.

Shirley Thompson versus the Aliens (Jim Sharman, 1972) Production Company: Kolossal Piktures. Producer: Jim Sharman. Associate Producer: Matt Carroll. Screenplay, Scenario, Script: Helmut Bakaitis, Jim Sharman. Photography: David Sanderson. Editor: Malcolm Smith. Art Director: Brian Thomson. Music: Ralph Tyrell. Songs: sung by Jeannie Lewis. Assistant Director: Meg Stewart, Rex Cramphorn. Sound: Ken Hammond. 104 mins. Colour. 16-mm. Cast: Jane Harders (Shirley Thompson), June Collis (Dr Leslie Smith), Tim Elliot (Dr George Talbot), Marion Johns (Rita Thompson), John Llewellyn (Reg Thompson), Marie Nicholas (Narelle Thompson), Helmut Bakaitis (Harold), John Ivkovitch (Bruce), Bruce Gould (Blake), Kate Fitzpatrick (nurse), Alexander Hay (Alien), Ron Haddrick (replica of Prince Philip), Phil Kitamura, Candy Raymond, Julie Rodgers, Georgina West, Max Hess and Sue Moir (gang members). Dubbed by its director as a 'psychological thriller cum 50s rock musical/science fiction/fantasy movie ... the only A-grade B-movie loathed by underground, art-house and commercial managements alike', Shirley Thompson Versus The Aliens was the story of a 'widgie' in the 1950s in Sydney who is visited by aliens from outer space. Shirley and her gang try desperately to convince Australia that the aliens exist, but their message is ignored by the closed minds of the Menzies era. Shirley is assumed to be insane and is committed to an asylum where she repeatedly narrates her story to psychiatrists. (Pike & Cooper)

Show Business (A. R. Harwood, 1938) Production Company: New Era Film Productions. Producer: A R Harwood. Screenplay, Scenario, Script: Music: Frank Chapple. Additional Dialogue: Alex Rosenblum. Photography: Arthur Higgins. Production Manager: Neville Bletcher. Assistant Director: Chick Arnold. Sound: Mervyn Murphy. 90 mins. Cast: Bert Matthews (Cogs), Joyce Hunt (Nina Bellamy), Fred Tupper (Fred Hamilton), Chick Arnold (Red), Bonnie Dunn (tap dancer), Barbara James (singer), Betty Matear (Jean), Jimmy McMahon (Wally Winter), John Barrington (Bill Winter), Guy Hastings (Sir James Winter), Douglas Stuart (Benson), Fay Astor (Elsie), Charmaine Ross (Joan), Paul Leon (Jackson), Jimmy Coates and his band, the Pathe Duncan Ballet. Two brothers, Bill and Wally Winter, become infatuated with a scheming gold-digger, Nina Bellamy, who persuades them to ask Sir James, their wealthy father, for £10,000, so that Bill can produce a professional stage show and Wally a movie, both to star herself. Sir James discovers the truth about Nina and gives the money to his sons on condition that they leave town in secret for one month to write their shows, and that they use only newly-discovered talent in their casts. Bill visits a country town where a local group is rehearsing an amateur floor show; impressed by their work, he buys their show and brings it to the city where it opens with great success.

Showgirl's Luck (Norman Dawn, 1931) aka Talkie Mad; Production Company: Australian Talkies. Screenplay, Scenario, Script: Martyn Keith. Photography: Norman Dawn, Jack Fletcher, Walter Sully. Editor: Norman Dawn. Art Director: James Coleman. Songs: Jack O Hagan, Ormond Bulmers. Choreography: Meg Pendrick. Assistant Director: Fred Bluett. Sound: C S Pratt, William Marshall. 55 mins. Cast: Susan Denis (Peggy Morton), Arthur Tauchert (Hap), Arthur Clarke (Barry), Fred Bluett (Hollis), Sadie Bedford (Mona), Paul Longuet (Dud), George Saunders (Uncle George), Peggy Pryde, George Lloyd, Les Coney, Des Tooley, the Loretto Brothers. The director, Norman Dawn, wrote that Showgirl's Luck 'followed the accepted formula of the typical American musical of the period ... It had the usual simple straight line plot upon which was hung as many musical numbers as could be worked in' (N Dawn notebook, NFSA). The heroine is Peggy Morton (played by Dawn's wife, Katherine, under the stage name of Susan Denis), who works as the star of a touring tent show in rural Queensland. She is offered the lead in the first Australian talkie, being made in Sydney, but a rival, Mona Blake, tells her that the offer has been withdrawn and Mona goes to the Blue Mountains film location in her stead. Meanwhile Peggy's tent show closes and she finds a job by posing as a Swedish maid. By chance she is employed at the same hotel being used by the film company, and she soon learns of Mona's deception. Mona's husband attempts to abduct Peggy, but an actor, Barry, beats off the kidnappers. As the company prepares for the first scenes of the talkie, Peggy appears and Mona departs in disgrace, leaving Peggy to stardom and the attentions of Barry. (Pike & Cooper)

Slim Dusty Movie, The (Rob Stewart, 1984) doco about Slim Dusty and his touring band with some dramatisation of his life: so a biopic as well

Sons of Steel (Gary L. Keady, 1989) rock star and his girlfriend strive to turn back time in order to avert a disaster in the near future; exploitation

Spear (Stephen Page, 2015) dp Bonnie Elliott, music David Page; dance film based on Bangarra Dance's Skin, 2000

Star Struck (Gillian Armstrong, 1982) aka Starstruck; Jo Kennedy, Ross O'Donovan, Margo Lee, Pat Evison, Geoffrey Rush; musical; brief review of DVD release: Emma Bacon, Empire, 42, September 2004: 117

Stockade (Hans Pomeranz, 1971) Production Company: Spectrum Film Producers. Producer: Hans Pomeranz. Director of Acting: Ross McGregor. Screenplay, Scenario, Script: Kenneth Cook. Photography: Oscar Scherl. Editor: Ronda MacGregor. Music: Michael Caulfield, Jack Grimsley, Max Hynam; words and traditional music arranged by Kenneth Cook and Patricia Cook. Sound: Barry Brown. Stunt Co-ordinator: Peter Armstrong. 90 mins. Colour. 16-mm. Cast: Michelle Fawdon (Elizabeth Green), Rod Mullinar (Peter Lalor), Graham Corry (George Black), Sue Hollywood (Ma Bentley), Charles Thorne (Captain Thomas), Norman Willison (Johnny), Max Cullen (Rafaello Carboni), Michael Rolfe (Captain Wise). Stockade began as a musical play detailing, with reasonable historical accuracy, the events at the Eureka Stockade when rebellious miners fought against government regulation of the goldfields in Ballarat in 1854.

Strictly Ballroom (Baz Luhrmann, 1992) dp Steve Mason; Paul Mercurio, Tara Morice, Bill Hunter, Pat Thomson, Gia Carides, Peter Whitford, Barry Otto, Antonio Vargas; 91 min.

Summer City (Christopher Fraser, 1977) Production Company: Avalon Films/Summer City Productions. Producer, Screenplay, Scenario, Script: Phillip Avalon. Photography: Jerry Marek. Editor: David Stiven. Art Director: Jann Harris. Music: Phil Bitkis. Production Manager: Lionel Slutzkin. Assistant Director: Michael Carlton. Sound Recording: Bill Pitt. 85 mins. Colour. Cast: John Jarratt (Sandy), Phillip Avalon (Robbie), Steve Bisley (Boo), Mel Gibson (Scollop), Debbie Forman (Caroline), James Elliot, Abigail, Ward Austin. "Conceived as a 'road movie' with both action and comedy for the teenage market, Summer City was set in the rock-and-roll era of the early 1960s, complete with clips from Brian Henderson's television show, Bandstand, songs by Australian rock-and-roll stars on the sound-track, and an appearance by the disc jockey Ward Austin. Four young men set off up the coast in their old Chevy for a weekend of surfing and fun." (Pike & Cooper)

Thunderstruck (Darren Ashton, 2003) dop Geoffrey Hall, ed. Martin Connor; Roy Billing, Stephen Curry, Damon Gameau, Jason Gann, Ryan Johnson, Kestie Morassi, Callan Mulvey, Sam Worthington; AC/DC fans want to bury friend's ashes next to Bon Scott's; shot in Fremantle and Adelaide

Tracker, The (Rolf de Heer, 2002) wr. Rolf de Heer, dp Ian Jones; David Gulpilil, Gary Sweet, Damon Gameau, Grant Page; 98 min., national release 8 Aug; songs performed by Archie Roach

Walk The Talk (Shirley Barrett, 2000) wr. Shirley Barrett; comedy; Nicki Bennett, Salvatore Coco, Sacha Horler; Nicki Bennett, a real-life singer, plays a singer who is managed by Salvatore Coco's character; story is based on events surrounding Gold Coast model Fairlie Arrow.

Warming Up (Bruce Best, 1985) prod. James Davern for Film Rep, wr. James Davern, dp Joseph Pickering, design Michael Ralph, ed. Zsolt Kollanyi; Queenie Ashton, Adam Fernance, Kim Grogan, Lloyd Morris, Barbara Stephens, Henri Szeps; comedy: country football team learns ballet; Eastman colour, 35mm, 93 min.


Gillard, Garry, 'The musical', Ten Types of Australian Film, second edition, Murdoch University, 2008.

Neale, Steve 1999, 'The musical', in Pam Cook & Mieke Bernink 1999, The Cinema Book, second edition, BFI, London: 209-218; repr. in Neale 2000: 104-112.

Neale, Steve 2000, Genre and Hollywood, Routledge, London & New York: esp. 104-112.

Pike, Andrew & Ross Cooper 1998, Australian Film 1900-1977: A Guide to Feature Film Production, rev. ed., Oxford University Press, Melbourne.

Garry Gillard | New: 8 December, 2002 | Now: 23 November, 2019